Shipping hazardous materials (HAZMAT) requires adherence to specific rules and regulations, along with the implementation of safety precautions. Neglecting these measures can pose risks to both individuals and the environment, and may result in potential fines or penalties. Here’s what you need to know to safely ship HAZMAT without incident.
Shipping Hazardous Materials
What’s in the article:
What are hazardous materials?
What are a shipper’s responsibilities when shipping hazardous materials?
Methods for ensuring safety when shipping hazardous material
What are Hazardous Materials?
Hazardous materials include materials designated by the Secretary of the Department of Transportation (DOT) as posing an unreasonable threat to the public and the environment. This term applies to things like hazardous substances and wastes, marine pollutants, and elevated-temperature material.
Hazardous materials take many forms. These are nine classes of HAZMAT you need to be aware of:
Class 1 – Explosives: Materials that could potentially explode or burst into flames while in transit if not handled properly.
Class 2 – Gases: Including flammable, non-flammable, and poisonous or toxic gases. These may be compressed, dissolved under pressure, pressurized, or cryogenic liquids, and liquified gases.
Class 3 – Flammable Liquid: Including materials that have a flash point (FP) not more than 141 degrees Fahrenheit.
Class 4 – Flammable Solids: Including flammable solids and spontaneously combustible material or materials that are dangerous when wet.
Class 5 – Oxidizing Substances; Organic Peroxides: Includes things like oxidizer and organic peroxide.
Class 6 – Poisonous (Toxic) and Infectious Substances: Including infectious substances and materials that are considered poisonous or toxic.
Class 7 – Radioactive Material: Anything that is radioactive.
Class 8 – Corrosives: Anything that could cause corrosion.
Class 9 – Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods: Including things like environmentally hazardous substances, elevated temperature material, hazardous wastes, and marine pollutants.
ORM-D – Materials classified as consumer commodities that may be subject to the regulations but presents a limited hazard during transportation due to their form, quantity, and packaging.
Shipper’s Responsibilities in Hazmat Shipping
HAZMAT shippers have many responsibilities according to federal regulations. Recognizing that the goods you are shipping are hazardous materials is the first and most difficult step. Proper classification of hazardous materials is essential as well. This dictates how the goods are labeled, packaged, and handled while in transit. These are critical to safe passage.
Shipper responsibilities include:
Determining whether a material meets the definition of a “hazardous material”: This is the first and most important step.
Proper Shipping Name, Class/Division, and Identification Number: These must be included on the shipping documents.
Hazard Warning Label: It’s essential that all hazardous materials be properly labeled when prior to shipment.
Packing: Shippers must use authorized packaging that has been manufactured, assembled, and marked in accordance with the Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR).
Marking: Basic marking requirements for hazardous materials consist of a proper shipping name and identification number for the contents of the package. It is important that the markings be durable, in English, and not obscured by other labels or markings on the package.
Employee Training: HAZMAT training is required for all HAZMAT employees. The training must raise general awareness and familiarize HAZMAT employees with regulations and documentation requirements. Function-specific training, safety training, and security training are also required for HAZMAT employees according to federal regulations. These employees are also required to receive updated training every three years or any time they change job functions.
Security Plans: Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) dictate that each hazmat employer that is subject to the security plan requirements must establish and implement a security plan and train their HAZMAT employees on the plan.
Shipping Papers: Shippers must create documents for the purpose of communicating that the shipment contents are hazardous. These documents must include a proper description of the hazardous materials that comply with the regulatory requirements. They must include details like proper shipping name, hazard class, identification number, and packaging group. Carriers are prohibited from transporting HAZMAT without properly prepared shipping documents.
Emergency Response Phone Number and Information: An emergency response phone number must be included on the shipping papers. This number must be always monitored while the material is being transported. The number is required to be for a person who has knowledge of the hazardous materials being shipped and the proper emergency response procedures. If the contact person does not have this knowledge, they need to have immediate access to a person that possesses this knowledge. It’s important to note that the person who signs the shipping papers should be the individual most familiar with the shipment.
Shipper Responsibilities Shared with Carriers
Some carrier responsibilities overlap with shipper responsibilities, making the carrier ultimately responsible for performing that function in accordance with federal hazardous materials regulations.
These shared responsibilities include shipping papers, compatibility, blocking and bracing, placarding, and security plan preparation.
Ensuring Safety When Shipping Hazardous Material
It’s essential to human and environmental safety to properly identify and classify hazardous materials prior to shipment. This affects your ability to comply with packaging, labeling, and other regulatory requirements for the safe transport of hazardous goods.
HAZMAT shipping is complex and can be risky if not done properly. Select a shipping partner that’s knowledgeable and qualified to transport hazardous goods safely. HAZMAT shipping experts demystify the process and ensure your goods arrive at their destination without incident.